The following simple conventions are used in this display of the corpus.
Overall, word constituency is not shown, but hyphens are used within words as follows:
- between verb and auxiliary
- between verb and verb in a compound
- between adjective stem and ending
- after prefixes
- after numerals
Logographic versus phonographic writing
The transcription uses italics for phonographically written text, plain type for logographically written text, and underlined plain type for text which is not represented in the original script, but is included on the basis of reading tradition. Reading of logographically written text follows the readings in the critical edition of Nihon koten bungaku taikei (NBKT), published by Iwanami Shoten. The original script version also follows the NKBT where possible.
Words and word forms are given in their phonemic shape. Where unusual phonogram usage may be thought to reflect spelling mistakes (for whatever reason), we use the normal spelling in the transcription. However, for the Eastern Old Japanese material, we give the sound value normally associated with individual phonograms (in their use to write the central Old Japanese language), also where we suspect usage may reflect simple spelling mistakes.
We use the Frellesvig & Whitman system for transcription of Old Japanese. The following two tables exemplify the notation of the distinction between kō-rui (甲類) and otsu-rui (乙類) syllables in this system in contrast with some other systems which have been used (including Ohno Susumu's system as used for example in the Iwanami Kogo jiten and the Yale system of Samuel E. Martin’s The Japanese language through time). Table 2 includes also the Modern Japanese ('NJ') shape of example words. See further about OJ phonology and transcription Bjarke Frellesvig, A history of the Japanese language, (2010, Cambridge University Press), pp. 26ff.
Table 1. OJ transcription systems
|'ear (of rice)'||ho||po||po||po||po||po|
Table 2. Examples